EXPLANATION FILE OF PROGRAM CLIPTIC =================================== Elliptic IntegraIs by Recursion ------------------------------- Elliptie integrals outwardly appear to be very esoteric functions and many practicing scientists and engineers avoid them. But these functions are inti- mately related to such very common and simple concepts as the period of a pen- dulum and the circumference of an ellipse. We will consider the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. They are defined respectively as pi/2 1 K(k) = Sum ------------------- dt (3.6.1) 0 sqrt(1-k^2 sin^2 t) and pi/2 1 E(k) = Sum ------------------- dt (3.6.2) 0 sqrt(1+k^2 sin^2 t) K(k) can easily be used to accurately calculate the period of an ideal pendu- lum as follows. If the length of the pendulum is l, the gravitational constant g and the maximum amplitude of swing alpha (in radians), then the period is T = 4 K(k) sqrt(l/g) where k = sin(alpha/2) (3.6.3) ln most introductory courses and texts that discuss the pendulum, it is assu- med that the amplitude of swing is so small that sin(theta) can be replaced with theta in the defining differential equation. ln that case, k is near 0 and T is near 2 pi sqrt(l/g). For amplitudes of vibration so small that this approximation is valid, the period is independent of the amplitude and is said to be isochronous. However, as the maximum amplitude is increased, the period gets longer (e.g., a church bell stuck upside down). Greenhill gives a prac- tical example that shows that if a pendulum's amplitude is adjusted from a 6° swing to a 10° swing, it will lose 26 seconds a day. As you can imagine, the- se calculations were particularly important in the days when the pendulum (or a similar dock mechanism) was the primary timepiece. The complete elliptie integral of the second kind, E(k), also has a simple application. If the major and minor axes of an ellipse are 2a and 2b, respec- tively, then the circumference of that ellipse is c = 4b E(k) where k^2 = (b^2 - a^)/b^2 (3.6.4) For the special case of a circle, a = b and c = 2 pi b. As you can see, elliptie integrals are involved in sorne very fundamental calculations. We will now consider how K(k) and E(k) can be approximated. The steps in the elliptic integral recursion procedure are very similar to those involved in the arctangent calculation. First, the starting values are defined: ao = 1 + k (3.6.5) ho = 1 - k Next, the recursion relation is repeatedly exercised until lan - bnl is less than sorne convergence criterion, E: a = (a + b) / 2 i+1 i i for i = 1, 2, ... (3.6.6) (a b)^(1/2) i i Note that equation (3.6.6) is nearly identical to equation (3.4.2).) Once the convergence criterion has been met, K(k) is evaluated as K(k) = pi/2 a n E(k) requires sorne further calculation: E(k) = (K(k/2)[2 - (aČ - bČ) - 2(aČ - bČ) - 4(aČ - bČ) - ... ] (3.6.8) 0 0 1 1 2 2 Technically, the form of the evaluation for E(k) is prone to round-off error. Convergence is usually rapid, however, and the round-off error tends to be small. The above recursive procedure can be very compactly programmed in BASIC as shown in program CLIPTIC.BAS. The inputs to CLIPTIC are simply the parameter K (0 <= K <= 1) and the convergence criterion, E. The outputs are El = K(K), E2 = E(K), and the number of steps performed, N. As is typical with this kind of recursion calculation, the accuracy is good. From [BIBLI 01]. --------------------------------------------------------- End of file cliptic.txt